Repeated measures is one of those terms in statistics that sounds like it could apply to many design situations. In fact, it describes only one.
A repeated measures design is one where each subject is measured repeatedly over time, space, or condition on the dependent variable.
These repeated measurements on the same subject are not independent of each other. They’re clustered. They are more correlated to each other than they are to responses from other subjects. Even if both subjects are in the same condition. (more…)
What is a Confounder?
Confounder (also called confounding variable) is one of those statistical terms that confuses a lot of people. Not because it represents a confusing concept, but because of how it’s used.
(Well, it’s a bit of a confusing concept, but that’s not the worst part).
It has slightly different meanings to different types of researchers. The definition is essentially the same, but the research context can have specific implications for how that definition plays out.
If the person you’re talking to has a different understanding of what it means, you’re going to have a confusing conversation.
Let’s take a look at some examples to unpack this.