A research study rarely involves just one single statistical test. And multiple testing can result in more statistically significant findings just by chance.
After all, with the typical Type I error rate of 5% used in most tests, we are allowing ourselves to “get lucky” 1 in 20 times for each test. When you figure out the probability of Type I error across all the tests, that probability skyrockets.
I recently gave a free webinar on Principal Component Analysis. We had almost 300 researchers attend and didn’t get through all the questions. This is part of a series of answers to those questions.
If you missed it, you can get the webinar recording here.
Question: Can we use PCA for reducing both predictors and response variables?
In fact, there were a few related but separate questions about using and interpreting the resulting component scores, so I’ll answer them together here.
How could you use the component scores?
A lot of times PCAs are used for further analysis — say, regression. How can we interpret the results of regression?
Let’s say I would like to interpret my regression results in terms of original data, but they are hiding under PCAs. What is the best interpretation that we can do in this case?
So yes, the point of PCA is to reduce variables — create an index score variable that is an optimally weighted combination of a group of correlated variables.
And yes, you can use this index variable as either a predictor or response variable.
It is often used as a solution for multicollinearity among predictor variables in a regression model. Rather than include multiple correlated predictors, none of which is significant, if you can combine them using PCA, then use that.
It’s also used as a solution to avoid inflated familywise Type I error caused by running the same analysis on multiple correlated outcome variables. Combine the correlated outcomes using PCA, then use that as the single outcome variable. (This is, incidentally, what MANOVA does).
In both cases, you can no longer interpret the individual variables.
You may want to, but you can’t. (more…)