Sample size estimates are one of those data analysis tasks that look straightforward, but once you try to do one, make you want to bang your head against the computer in frustration. Or, maybe that’s just me.
Regardless of how they make you feel, they are super important to do for your study before you collect the data.
A research study rarely involves just one single statistical test. And multiple testing can result in more statistically significant findings just by chance.
After all, with the typical Type I error rate of 5% used in most tests, we are allowing ourselves to “get lucky” 1 in 20 times for each test. When you figure out the probability of Type I error across all the tests, that probability skyrockets.