How to Calculate Effect Size Statistics

by Karen Grace-Martin


There are many effect size statistics for ANOVA and regression, and as you may have noticed, journal editors are now requiring you include one.

Unfortunately, the one your editor wants or is the one most appropriate to your research may not be the one your software makes available (SPSS, for example, reports Partial Eta Squared only, although it labels it Eta Squared in early versions).

Luckily, all the effect size measures are relatively easy to calculate from information in the ANOVA table on your output.  Here are a few common ones:

Effect Size Forulas

Eta Squared, Partial Eta Squared, and Omega Squared Formulas

Cohens d formula

Cohen’s d formula

You  have to be careful, if you’re using SPSS, to use the correct values, as SPSS labels aren’t always what we think.  For example, for SSTotal, use what SPSS labels SS Corrected Total.

What SPSS labels SS Total actually also includes SS for the Intercept, which is redundant to other information in the model.

The denominator for Cohen’s d is always some measure of standard deviation.  I’ve shown s pooled here, but you often see different options, including just using one sample’s s.  This is the one I see used most commonly.





tn_ircInterested in learning more? Check out our free webinar recording on Effect Size Statistics.

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{ 39 comments… read them below or add one }

lolo August 31, 2017 at 9:09 am

I did calculate the effect size of treatment (cohens d ) now i would like to calculate the interaction between the treatment and the independent variable ( covariance ) to calculate the effect size for each (eta square ) how can I do it using spss?


lakshmi Pandey April 21, 2017 at 9:53 am

25 teacher and 150 students , how can we calculate omega square in spss


Majed February 15, 2017 at 3:56 pm


I am using repeated measure ANOVA to see the difference between 6 groups (i measure the muscle power when perform 6 different sporting tasks and i want to see is the muscle power different between these 6 tasks). My question is: is it possible to calculate the effect size in such case and how?



Suhair November 3, 2016 at 3:31 am

if i use One sample t test, can i calculate Effect Size? and How to Calculate?
Eta Squared?


leon January 6, 2016 at 1:32 pm

good day

how do i calculate effect size from mean and confidence intervals?


Mphikeleli Mnguni December 23, 2015 at 8:03 am

I am assessing effect of government’s incubation service quality to increase performance of SMMEs and I am using SERQUAL. I am checking the relationship between the 5 dimensions and satisfaction as well as the correlation between the satisfaction and performance i.e. revenue and employment. Which effect size explains the practical difference?


vicky August 9, 2015 at 5:02 am


Just to be clear, when calculating the total ss from SPSS output for eta-squared: you add up the sums of squares for each of the main effects, interactions, and for all of the errors (i.e., each ss for each main effect and interaction)




Usha May 29, 2015 at 5:52 am

Is it possible to report eta-squared values as “small,medium,large” effect size?


Karen June 3, 2015 at 9:11 am

It’s possible, and often done, but not a good idea.


heather May 18, 2015 at 1:21 pm

I have both paired and independent samples t-tests. I was wondering what effect size measure I should use?
Both Cohens D, and r seem quite difficult to calculate for paired samples. Can partial eta squared be calculated using general linear model- univariate in SPSS?



StatsBo May 13, 2015 at 7:36 am

Can you calculate eta squared from a kruskal-wallis test using chi squared?


Tom March 25, 2015 at 2:58 pm

Page has helped me greatly but I seem to be going in circles on what I should actually report. I have performed a two within repeated measures study and SPSS is giving me partial eta as effect size. Do I just report that or should I be turning it into something else? I read somewhere about squaring the partial eta and using that value for something but as you can see I am getting pretty lost.

Hope that makes sense, thanks in advance for the help!


francesco March 7, 2015 at 2:58 am

I have done a 2x2x2 study, so with spss I ran an three-way repeated measures ANOVA (analyze -> GLM -> repeated measures). Now, I would like to calculate the proportions of variability explained by each one of my three independent variables, by error and by interactions. To do so, I think, I have to calculated the eta squared for each effect. Thus I will have SS effect/SS total … now, the first data is easy to find because in the spss output you find typeIII sum of squares that is SS effect – the problem is how to calculate SS total. What do I have to add to find SS total?
Can you help me with that?
thank you very much,


khairul February 2, 2015 at 10:58 am

I am currently doing a research and found that my Cohen’s d value is greater than one (6.934).

Say, for treatment group M=128.5250 SD=9.54876 and control group M=76.1750 and SD=4.77648. I have used your formula, with S pooled. and the result was 6.934. Am i doing it rightly? because the Cohen’s d value usually not more than 1.


Karen February 2, 2015 at 3:27 pm

Hi Khairul,

It’s fine. You’re right that Cohen’s d usually isn’t bigger than 1, but it’s not impossible. You just have a really big effect. The difference in your two means is the size of nearly 7 std deviations.


Robert December 9, 2014 at 4:36 pm

Hi Karen,
Is there a way to test, statistically, if the effect sizes (say, partial eta squared) from two ANOVAs are different or the same. For example, for a congruent seller and a congruent buyer, the effect size (i.e., partial η²) was .259. This same analysis was then conducted for an incongruent seller and an incongruent buyer resulting in an effect size of .342.


Daniel October 29, 2014 at 4:59 pm

Hi Karen,
Thanks for a wonderful website! I wonder if you could help me with a problem. When I compute a two-way ANOVA in SPSS I have no problem with calculating Cohen’s d for the two main effects based on M and SD (for example in online effect size calculators). However, I really can’t figuring out how to calculate Cohen’s d for the interaction effect. What among the information in the ANOVA table in my SPSS output should I use and in what way? I really hope you can help me out. Thanks in advance


Karen November 3, 2014 at 4:43 pm

Hi Daniel,

A Cohen’s d is really a measure of a mean difference. It doesn’t really make sense to calculate it for an interaction (which is a difference between two or more mean differences). That’s probably why you can’t find it. 🙂


Michael Chandler March 5, 2015 at 5:46 pm

Hi, Daniel – I had this same question as well. I’m working on an assignment that asks me to calculate Cohen’s d for my main effects and for an interaction. For the main effects, I had NO problems, but for the interaction, I’m having trouble knowing WHICH means to use to find the difference and which SDs to use to calculate Pooled SD. From Karen’s reply, it seems that this isn’t something I should be trying to calculate. Why would my assignment be to find this if it’s so irrelevant?


Karen March 6, 2015 at 4:51 pm

Hi Michael,

If this is for a class I would suggest clarifying with the instructor what they’re looking for. The only thing I could think of is calculating d for each of the simple effects within the interaction. I still don’t see why this would be helpful, but maybe your professor has a good reason for asking for it. I think Eta Squared makes more sense for an interaction, personally.


Cory May 23, 2015 at 7:15 pm


Isn’t the reason that we do ANOVA so that we can then do post hoc tests? What’s the point of having an interaction term in your model, finding it to be significant, then not doing a post hoc test, such as a Tukey’s, to find out more precisely which slopes are different? In which case, you could calculate cohen’s d (or better yet hedges’s g) for each pair that is different.

The partial eta squared values aren’t that informative when your factors have more than two levels, correct?

Am I missing something?




Masi October 21, 2014 at 3:38 pm

Hi Karen,

having studied some papers, I came to conclusion that eta squared is used as effect size for Two-way ANOVA. eta squared, not partial eta squared… am I right? how can I calculated effect size for two-way ANOVA in spss? is there any rule for the sum of eta squared of variables (corrected model, intercept, variable x, variable Y, interaction (variable x and y)) ????

thanks in advance


Cynthia May 22, 2014 at 9:34 pm

Hi Karen,

Thanks for a wonderful resource! I’m trying to figure out which effect size is most appropriate for small sample size (n=29) and unequal/unbalanced cell sizes for my 2×2 ANOVA. Can you advise?

Thank you!


Yatin May 12, 2014 at 4:56 am

Hi Karen,

Thanks for such a great resource. Makes life simpler. I had two questions.

1) I was going through some papers and wanted to compare my data’s effect size with those papers. So is it possible to calculate partial eta squared from F value, df ?

2) Cohen’s d follows a classification system based on their effect sizes (Cohen, 1992) i.e. Cohen’s d = .10 = weak effect
Cohen’s d = .30 = moderate effect
Cohen’s d = .50 = strong effect

Is there a similar classification for partial eta squared effect sizes as well. If yes, do you know any reference on top of your mind?

Thank you.


Karen May 14, 2014 at 2:40 pm

Hi Yatin,

Not that I know of, although the nice thing about eta squared is it’s a percentage, so you should be able to evaluate whether it’s a large or small percentage. I don’t like these “t-shirt sizes” for Cohen’s d anyway. I talked about this in my Effect Size Statistics webinar. It’s a free download.


Ryan April 22, 2014 at 9:17 am

I just wanted to know whether you have to use cohens d to find the effect size for an independent samples t-test or can you use partial eta squared to represent the effect size of an independent samples t-test.


Karen May 7, 2014 at 10:58 am

Hi Ryan,

You could do an eta squared, but you’d have to run it through anova instead of a t-test


Anoop April 20, 2014 at 8:34 am

Hi Karen,

What is the SD to calculate Cohen’s d For an ANCOVA? Can i use the square root of the MSerror of the ANCOVA?

Thank you!


Karen April 21, 2014 at 11:14 am

Hi Anoop,

Yes. That sq root of the MSError (with the fancy name Root MSE or RSME) is an estimate of the pooled std deviation.


KB April 16, 2014 at 12:40 pm

Thanks for a great resource. I have an omega squared value of w2 = 0.45
I need to change this into a standardized mean difference (cohen’s d). Can you suggest how to do so?


Karen April 21, 2014 at 11:12 am

Hi KB,

As far as I know, you can’t do it. Omega Sq is based on % variance explained and Cohen’s d is based on mean differences. There should be many mean differences with the same SS, for example.


Kim S March 1, 2014 at 4:04 pm

Hi Karen,

Do you know how to calculate an effect size for a planned contrast? E.g. I want to compare the means of 2 groups vs. the means of 3 groups and get Cohen’s d.




Karen April 7, 2014 at 5:02 pm

Hi Kim,

I’ve never heard of a Cohen’s d for a contrast, but I can’t think of a conceptual reason it shouldn’t work. Hmmm.


GradStudent January 28, 2014 at 12:21 pm

For a 2×2 between ANOVA, my table gives me .86 for the SS^effect , 6.564 for the SS^corrected total, and .131 for partial eta squared. When I use these calculations, it gives me .116 for partial eta squared, but .131 for eta squared!! I’m so confused now.


Karen February 3, 2014 at 4:34 pm

That indeed looks to be to be .131 for eta squared. Are there other effects in the model?


Sarit December 15, 2013 at 3:10 pm

How do I calculate the eta squared from the partial eta squared I got using SPSS?


Karen December 23, 2013 at 1:22 pm

You can’t do it from partial eta squared, but you can from the SS using the formulas.


ioana November 27, 2013 at 10:32 am

I have a question regarding Omega squared: can you use this formula for repeated measures or mixed designs? If not, then where can I find a formula for such situations? – I couldn’t find a clear answer to this anywhere.

Thank you!


Karen December 3, 2013 at 12:16 pm

Hi Ioana,

To my knowledge, no. I checked Keppel, and he said there are a few version of omega sq for repeated measures anovas, but they’re problematic. But my version of Keppel is not the most recent. Perhaps there is a better option now.

I do know that for a mixed model, there isn’t. You can estimate a Cohen’s d, though for a standardized mean difference score.


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