# categorical predictor

### Interpreting Regression Coefficients

December 20th, 2021 by

Updated 12/20/2021

Despite its popularity, interpreting regression coefficients of any but the simplest models is sometimes, well….difficult.

So let’s interpret the coefficients in a model with two predictors: a continuous and a categorical variable.  The example here is a linear regression model. But this works the same way for interpreting coefficients from any regression model without interactions.

A linear regression model with two predictor variables results in the following equation:

Yi = B0 + B1*X1i + B2*X2i + ei.

The variables in the model are:

• Y, the response variable;
• X1, the first predictor variable;
• X2, the second predictor variable; and
• e, the residual error, which is an unmeasured variable.

The parameters in the model are:

• B0, the Y-intercept;
• B1, the first regression coefficient; and
• B2, the second regression coefficient.

One example would be a model of the height of a shrub (Y) based on the amount of bacteria in the soil (X1) and whether the plant is located in partial or full sun (X2).

Height is measured in cm. Bacteria is measured in thousand per ml of soil.  And type of sun = 0 if the plant is in partial sun and type of sun = 1 if the plant is in full sun.

Let’s say it turned out that the regression equation was estimated as follows:

Y = 42 + 2.3*X1 + 11*X2

### Interpreting the Intercept

B0, the Y-intercept, can be interpreted as the value you would predict for Y if both X1 = 0 and X2 = 0.

We would expect an average height of 42 cm for shrubs in partial sun with no bacteria in the soil. However, this is only a meaningful interpretation if it is reasonable that both X1 and X2 can be 0, and if the data set actually included values for X1 and X2 that were near 0.

If neither of these conditions are true, then B0 really has no meaningful interpretation. It just anchors the regression line in the right place. In our case, it is easy to see that X2 sometimes is 0, but if X1, our bacteria level, never comes close to 0, then our intercept has no real interpretation.

### Interpreting Coefficients of Continuous Predictor Variables

Since X1 is a continuous variable, B1 represents the difference in the predicted value of Y for each one-unit difference in X1, if X2 remains constant.

This means that if X1 differed by one unit (and X2 did not differ) Y will differ by B1 units, on average.

In our example, shrubs with a 5000/ml bacteria count would, on average, be 2.3 cm taller than those with a 4000/ml bacteria count. They likewise would be about 2.3 cm taller than those with 3000/ml bacteria, as long as they were in the same type of sun.

(Don’t forget that since the measurement unit for bacteria count is 1000 per ml of soil, 1000 bacteria represent one unit of X1).

### Interpreting Coefficients of Categorical Predictor Variables

Similarly, B2 is interpreted as the difference in the predicted value in Y for each one-unit difference in X2 if X1 remains constant. However, since X2 is a categorical variable coded as 0 or 1, a one unit difference represents switching from one category to the other.

B2 is then the average difference in Y between the category for which X2 = 0 (the reference group) and the category for which X2 = 1 (the comparison group).

So compared to shrubs that were in partial sun, we would expect shrubs in full sun to be 11 cm taller, on average, at the same level of soil bacteria.

### Interpreting Coefficients when Predictor Variables are Correlated

Don’t forget that each coefficient is influenced by the other variables in a regression model. Because predictor variables are nearly always associated, two or more variables may explain some of the same variation in Y.

Therefore, each coefficient does not measure the total effect on Y of its corresponding variable. It would if it were the only predictor variable in the model. Or if the predictors were independent of each other.

Rather, each coefficient represents the additional effect of adding that variable to the model, if the effects of all other variables in the model are already accounted for.

This means that adding or removing variables from the model will change the coefficients. This is not a problem, as long as you understand why and interpret accordingly.

### Interpreting Other Specific Coefficients

I’ve given you the basics here. But interpretation gets a bit trickier for more complicated models, for example, when the model contains quadratic or interaction terms. There are also ways to rescale predictor variables to make interpretation easier.

So here is some more reading about interpreting specific types of coefficients for different types of models:

### Centering a Covariate to Improve Interpretability

April 9th, 2021 by

Centering a covariate –a continuous predictor variable–can make regression coefficients much more interpretable. That’s a big advantage, particularly when you have many coefficients to interpret. Or when you’ve included terms that are tricky to interpret, like interactions or quadratic terms.

For example, say you had one categorical predictor with 4 categories and one continuous covariate, plus an interaction between them.

First, you’ll notice that if you center your covariate at the mean, there is (more…)

### What It Really Means to Remove an Interaction From a Model

September 17th, 2020 by

When you’re model building, a key decision is which interaction terms to include. And which interactions to remove.

As a general rule, the default in regression is to leave them out. Add interactions only with a solid reason. It would seem like data fishing to simply add in all possible interactions.

And yet, that’s a common practice in most ANOVA models: put in all possible interactions and only take them out if there’s a solid reason. Even many software procedures default to creating interactions among categorical predictors.

### Simplifying a Categorical Predictor in Regression Models

January 14th, 2020 by

One of the many decisions you have to make when model building is which form each predictor variable should take. One specific version of this decision is whether to combine categories of a categorical predictor.

The greater the number of parameter estimates in a model the greater the number of observations that are needed to keep power constant. The parameter estimates in a linear (more…)

### Same Statistical Models, Different (and Confusing) Output Terms

January 7th, 2020 by

Learning how to analyze data can be frustrating at times. Why do statistical software companies have to add to our confusion?

I do not have a good answer to that question. What I will do is show examples. In upcoming blog posts, I will explain what each output means and how they are used in a model.

We will focus on ANOVA and linear regression models using SPSS and Stata software. As you will see, the biggest differences are not across software, but across procedures in the same software.

### Recoding a Variable from a Survey Question to Use in a Statistical Model

March 18th, 2019 by

Survey questions are often structured without regard for ease of use within a statistical model.

Take for example a survey done by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) regarding child births in the U.S. One of the variables in the data set is “interval since last pregnancy”. Here is a histogram of the results.